MLA citation that is in-text

These pages defines the proper structure for in-text citations in MLA:

Basic structure

It is necessary to credit the source for the reader when you have used a source in an assignment. Understand why guide? when it comes to factors why this is really important.

This credit appears in 2 places: in the body of this project (the in-text citation) as well as the end regarding the assignment (within the set of works cited). For virtually any in-text citation there should always be a matching entry when you look at the a number of works cited, and vice versa. The citation that is in-text fundamental information on the foundation:

  • The origin’s author(s)
  • The page quantity

The menu of works cited contains more information that is detailed the origin: the title, publishing details, etc.

An in-text citation appears similar to this:

Billy has the capacity to relate with other people together with his sound (Vonnegut 36).

Observe that the complete end just comes following the closing bracket, and therefore just the household title (final title) regarding the author can be used. Unlike APA, there is absolutely no comma amongst the page and author quantity.

The writer’s title can additionally be integrated into a phrase into the project, in which particular case it really is moved beyond your brackets:

Vonnegut defines Billy’s capacity to relate with other people together with his sound (36).

An in-text citation is required if you purchased information, some ideas, principles, or facts from another supply. For those who have paraphrased, summarised or quoted another writer, you ought to offer an in-text citation.

Often a supply shall do have more than one writer, no writer, or no page figures. See referencing elements for how to handle it during these circumstances.

Numerous authors

If your supply has two writers, cite the writers final names in your order they truly are provided within the supply. Individual the final names with an ‘and’.

(Smith and Jones 23).

In cases where a source has 3 or maybe more writers, then supply the very first writers final name but change the other authors with et al. (et al. means and other people in Latin). This pertains to both in-text citations and the works cited list.

(Burdick et al. 3)

Note: then also cite the first initial of these authors if two authors are cited with the same last name.

Numerous sources by one writer

Often you shall have to cite several sources by one writer.

A shortened version of the title (usually the first few words) is added to the in-text citation to distinguish the different sources in this circumstance. The abbreviated name should start with the term that the name is alphabetized by into the works cited list. Place shortened titles of self-contained sources or perhaps the container ( e.g. guide, journal name), in italics and put the shortened name of articles in quote marks. The abbreviated name should be divided through the writer with a comma.

(Peake, Titus Groan 94, Gormenghast 2, and “Boy in Darkness” 35).

Both the author’s title plus the title that is shortened be included as a sentence into the project, in which particular case they do not should be duplicated when you look at the brackets:

Peake, in Titus Groan, defines Swelter as “a dappled level of hot whiteness that is vague of a grey that dissolved into swamps of midnight” (33).

Quotations and block quotations

Direct quotations usually are placed inside quote markings (“ ”), followed closely by the guide:

Billy’s sound is referred to as “a gorgeous tool” (Vonnegut 36).

No quotation marks are used, and the quotation is indented instead if a quotation is longer than 4 lines of prose or 3 lines of verse. Note: with indented quotes, the punctuation that is final ( ag e.g. complete end) is following the word that is concluding of estimate and prior to the citation:

Vonnegut obviously establishes Billy’s energy of oration:

Billy exposed their lips, and out arrived a deep, resonant tone. Their vocals had been a gorgeous tool. It told jokes which brought straight down the home. It expanded serious, told jokes once again, and ended in a note of humility. The reason associated with the miracle had been this: Billy had taken a program in presenting and public speaking. (36)

Brief verse quotations (3 lines or less) might be a part of text (much like prose) with a slash that is forward/) to point in which the line break is.

Quotations must be just like the initial supply, many tiny modifications could be made. See quoting for details.

Title in writer place

No individual or group author is listed in some sources. This could be real for magazine/newspaper articles, website pages and encyclopГ¦dia entries. A shortened version of the source’s title (often only one or two words) is used instead of the author in the in-text citation in these situations

(“Writing for television”)

In the event that name is with in quote marks into the directory of works cited it should be in quote markings right right here. In the event that name is italicised into the listing of works cited (in other words. a source that is self-contained the origin container) it ought to be in italics here. A full page number may be included, after the normal guidelines. See referencing elements for details.

Guide within a supply (secondary why you shouldn’t use wix supply)

Numerous scholastic books and log articles quote previously publications or articles in the exact same subject. It is out of print, or unavailable through the library), you can cite the secondary source instead if you cannot access the original source (e.g:

As Shakespeare stated, “Sweets to the sweet” (qtd. in White 109).

In this example, the quoted source (the first supply) is Shakespeare. The quoting supply (the additional supply) is White. The initial supply is mentioned very first, followed closely by ‘qtd. in’ (for “quoted in”) after which the additional supply.

As you haven’t seen the initial supply (Shakespeare), it just seems into the in-text citation, perhaps not within the listing of works cited. The additional supply (White) should can be found in the menu of works cited, based on the normal structure for the form of supply.

If a whole article or chapter happens to be reproduced precisely in another supply (photocopied, as an example), you can easily cite the first supply and overlook the additional supply. See Massey University publications of readings for details.

Sources with numerous editions

Often works that arage literarye.g. Shakespeare) have now been posted often times and therefore are available much more than one version. In this situation it really is useful to offer more information in addition to (or often rather than) web page figures to simply help visitors find the foundation. More information might be chapter, paragraph, work, area or line figures. When you offer more information, provide the web web web page quantity first because of the information that is extra having a semi-colon.

(Wollstonecraft 185; ch. 13, sec. 2)

Multiple sources within the same brackets

They should be separated by a semi-colon if you want to include several different citations in one set of brackets:

(White 109; Vonnegut 36; Peake 33)

Sources and reading that is further

MLA Handbook. 8th that is ed Language Association, 2016. Massey Library link

The MLA Style Centre. Contemporary Language Association, 2018,


These pages are offered as helpful information to referencing that is proper. Your program, division, college, or institute may recommend certain conventions, and their suggestions supersede these directions. When you have concerns maybe perhaps maybe not covered right here, sign in the style guide mentioned above, pose a question to your course coordinator, or ask at Academic Q+A.

Page authorised by Director, CTL final updated on 17 October, 2019

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